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Biology and management of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in urban landscapes

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Biology and management of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in urban landscapes

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dc.contributor.advisor García Mari, Ferran es_ES
dc.contributor.advisor Soto Sánchez, Antonia Isabel es_ES
dc.contributor.author Beltrà Ivars, Aleixandre es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2014-05-06T06:36:38Z
dc.date.available 2014-05-06T06:36:38Z
dc.date.created 2014-04-16T10:00:18Z es_ES
dc.date.issued 2014-05-06T06:36:35Z es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10251/37233
dc.description.abstract Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin, first reported in the Mediterranean Basin in Almeria (Spain) in 1999. In the following years the mealybug spread into other Mediterranean regions and has also been recorded in Portugal and France, as well as in Sicily, Corsica and the Balearic Islands. Phenacoccus peruvianus is a polyphagous species and damages economically important ornamental plants. Since this was a relatively unknown species, during the first years of invasion, the mealybug was managed by the application of chemical treatments with wide-spectrum pesticides. However, the latest European directive on pesticide use reduces or even forbids pesticide applications in a wide range of urban green areas, giving significant priority to biological control (European Parliament and Council 2009). This thesis sets the basis for introducing biological control into a P. peruvianus management program in urban landscapes, focusing on its characterization, sampling, biology and control. In order to facilitate the identification of this and other mealybug species, we characterised 33 mealybug populations infesting crops and ornamental plants in Eastern Spain, using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques. This characterisation led to the identification of ten mealybug species and made routine identification possible through DNA sequencing or the use of derived species-specific molecular tools. The sequences obtained also add to the phylogenetic knowledge of the Pseudococcidae family and provide insight into the invasion history of some species. Phenacoccus peruvianus populations were high in bougainvillea plants during spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybug was mainly found in bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant strata. Phenacoccus peruvianus showed a high aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves and twigs. We recommend a binomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for IPM purposes in urban landscapes. Its most abundant natural enemies were found to be the primary parasitoids Acerophagus n. sp. near coccois and Leptomastix epona Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We also identified several predator species from the Anthocoridae, Coccinellidae, Chamaemyiidae, and Chrysopidae families. Phenacoccus peruvianus populations were lower during the second and third year of the survey, coinciding with an increase in the parasitoid Acerophagus sp. populations, which displaced the native L. epona. Differential female offspring and resource preemption are discussed as the main reasons for this displacement. To obtain further information on the biology of the new parasitoid Acerophagus sp. we determined some traits of its reproductive and feeding strategies. Acerophagus sp. egg load reached its maximum when it was 5 days old with almost 30 mature eggs. Phenacoccus peruvianus second and third nymphal instars and adults were suitable for parasitism and efficient encapsulation was low (10.76 ± 0.31 %). The parasitoid always preferred older instars when different host instars were available. Acerophagus sp. developed as a solitary parasitoid in the second instar and as a gregarious parasitoid in older instars (2¿4 parasitoids per host). Moreover, it reproduced parthenogenetically and all the emerged offspring were females. Immature development lasted between 20 and 22 days at 25°C and 65% HR. Under these conditions, adults lived for longer than 20 days when fed on honey, but fewer than 3 days when fed on naturally occurring sugar sources (host honeydew and Bougainvillea glabra flowers). en_EN
dc.language Inglés es_ES
dc.rights Reserva de todos los derechos es_ES
dc.source Riunet es_ES
dc.subject Control biológico es_ES
dc.subject Control biològic es_ES
dc.subject Biological control es_ES
dc.subject Pseudococcidae es_ES
dc.subject Cotonet es_ES
dc.subject Pseudocóccido es_ES
dc.subject Mealybug es_ES
dc.subject Phenacoccus peruvianus es_ES
dc.subject Parasitoid es_ES
dc.subject Parasitoid behaviour es_ES
dc.subject Encyrtidae es_ES
dc.subject Acerophagus es_ES
dc.subject Leptomastix es_ES
dc.subject Urban landscapes es_ES
dc.subject Áreas verdes urbanas es_ES
dc.subject Árees verdes urbanes: IPM es_ES
dc.subject GIP es_ES
dc.subject Sampling es_ES
dc.subject Muestreo es_ES
dc.subject Mostreig es_ES
dc.subject Dinámica poblacional es_ES
dc.subject Phenology. es_ES
dc.subject.classification PRODUCCION VEGETAL es_ES
dc.title Biology and management of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in urban landscapes en_EN
dc.type Tesis doctoral es_ES
dc.identifier.doi 10.4995/Thesis/10251/37233 es_ES
dc.rights.accessRights Abierto es_ES
dc.contributor.affiliation Universitat Politècnica de València. Departamento de Producción Vegetal - Departament de Producció Vegetal es_ES
dc.description.bibliographicCitation Beltrà Ivars, A. (2014). Biology and management of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in urban landscapes [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/37233. es_ES
dc.description.accrualMethod Alfresco es_ES
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion es_ES
dc.relation.tesis 8104 es_ES


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