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Practical formulas for the refraction coefficient

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Practical formulas for the refraction coefficient

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dc.contributor.author Baselga Moreno, Sergio es_ES
dc.contributor.author García-Asenjo Villamayor, Luis es_ES
dc.contributor.author Garrigues Talens, Pascual es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2016-03-07T16:45:26Z
dc.date.available 2016-03-07T16:45:26Z
dc.date.issued 2014-05
dc.identifier.issn 0733-9453
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10251/61536
dc.description.abstract Knowledge of the actual refraction coefficient is essential in leveling surveys and precise electromagnetic distance measurement reduction. The most common method followed by the surveyor for its determination is based on the use of simultaneous reciprocal zenith observations. The commonly used formula is only an approximation valid for approximately horizontal sightings, whereas the exact geometric solution turns out to be very complicated so that an iterative computation procedure is suggested instead. In the present paper, the goal is to derive a compact formula from the complete solution that is easy to implement and retains the necessary accuracy for horizontal and slanted sightings. In addition, the paper will also focus on the common situation for the surveyor where isolated observations have to be done and no partially compensating procedures—e.g., leap-frog or middle point—are possible. If temperature vertical profiles are unknown then the refraction coefficient cannot be reliably determined. Some surveyors may customarily use then an average value, e.g., k 5 0:13, perhaps being unaware of the risks involved in such simplistic assumption. In the present paper, it is also a goal to present a useful and simple formula for approximately estimating the refraction coefficient in terms of easily accessible parameters to correct the bulk of the refraction effect in single observations, always bearing in mind that determination of the refraction coefficient by means of a model may turn out to be somewhat inaccurate, but still better than the blind use of a universal k. es_ES
dc.description.sponsorship The authors are grateful to the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions, corrections, and comments that helped improve the original manuscript. This research is funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grant No. AYA2011-23232). en_EN
dc.language Inglés es_ES
dc.publisher American Society of Civil Engineers es_ES
dc.relation info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MICINN//AYA2011-23232/ES/DESARROLLO DE METODOLOGIA Y ALGORITMOS PARA EL EMPLEO DE GNSS EN DISTANCIOMETRIA ABSOLUTA DE ALTA PRECISION/ es_ES
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Surveying Engineering es_ES
dc.rights Reserva de todos los derechos es_ES
dc.subject Refraction es_ES
dc.subject Leveling es_ES
dc.subject Geodetic surveys es_ES
dc.subject.classification INGENIERIA CARTOGRAFICA, GEODESIA Y FOTOGRAMETRIA es_ES
dc.title Practical formulas for the refraction coefficient es_ES
dc.type Artículo es_ES
dc.identifier.doi 10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000124
dc.rights.accessRights Abierto es_ES
dc.contributor.affiliation Universitat Politècnica de València. Departamento de Ingeniería Cartográfica Geodesia y Fotogrametría - Departament d'Enginyeria Cartogràfica, Geodèsia i Fotogrametria es_ES
dc.description.bibliographicCitation Baselga Moreno, S.; García-Asenjo Villamayor, L.; Garrigues Talens, P. (2014). Practical formulas for the refraction coefficient. Journal of Surveying Engineering. 140(2):1-5. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000124 es_ES
dc.description.accrualMethod S es_ES
dc.relation.publisherversion http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000124 es_ES
dc.description.upvformatpinicio 1 es_ES
dc.description.upvformatpfin 5 es_ES
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion es_ES
dc.description.volume 140 es_ES
dc.description.issue 2 es_ES
dc.relation.senia 277533 es_ES
dc.identifier.eissn 1943-5428
dc.contributor.funder Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación es_ES


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