- -

Machine Learning and Virtual Reality on Body Movements¿ Behaviors to Classify Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

RiuNet: Institutional repository of the Polithecnic University of Valencia

Share/Send to

Cited by


  • Estadisticas de Uso

Machine Learning and Virtual Reality on Body Movements¿ Behaviors to Classify Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Show full item record

Alcañiz Raya, ML.; Marín-Morales, J.; Minissi, ME.; Teruel Garcia, G.; Abad, L.; Chicchi-Giglioli, IA. (2020). Machine Learning and Virtual Reality on Body Movements¿ Behaviors to Classify Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 9(5):1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051260

Por favor, use este identificador para citar o enlazar este ítem: http://hdl.handle.net/10251/169737

Files in this item

Item Metadata

Title: Machine Learning and Virtual Reality on Body Movements¿ Behaviors to Classify Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Author: Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis Marín-Morales, Javier Minissi, Maria Eleonora Teruel Garcia, Gonzalo Abad, Luis CHICCHI-GIGLIOLI, IRENE ALICE
UPV Unit: Universitat Politècnica de València. Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación en Bioingeniería y Tecnología Orientada al Ser Humano - Institut Interuniversitari d'Investigació en Bioenginyeria i Tecnologia Orientada a l'Ésser Humà
Universitat Politècnica de València. Departamento de Ingeniería Gráfica - Departament d'Enginyeria Gràfica
Issued date:
[EN] Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mostly diagnosed according to behavioral symptoms in sensory, social, and motor domains. Improper motor functioning, during diagnosis, involves the qualitative evaluation of stereotyped ...[+]
Subjects: Autism spectrum disorder , Body movements , Repetitive behaviors , Virtual reality , Machine learning
Copyrigths: Reconocimiento (by)
Journal of Clinical Medicine. (eissn: 2077-0383 )
DOI: 10.3390/jcm9051260
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051260
Project ID:
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MINECO//IDI-20170912/ES/Virtual Immersive Environment for the Assessment and Training of Autism Spectrum Disorder children (T-ROOM)/
This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry, and Competitiveness funded project "Immersive virtual environment for the evaluation and training of children with autism spectrum disorder: T Room" ...[+]
Type: Artículo



Anagnostou, E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Szatmari, P., Fombonne, E., Fernandez, B. A., Woodbury-Smith, M., … Scherer, S. W. (2014). Autism spectrum disorder: advances in evidence-based practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(7), 509-519. doi:10.1503/cmaj.121756

Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism From 2 to 9 Years of Age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 694. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.6.694 [+]

Anagnostou, E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Szatmari, P., Fombonne, E., Fernandez, B. A., Woodbury-Smith, M., … Scherer, S. W. (2014). Autism spectrum disorder: advances in evidence-based practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(7), 509-519. doi:10.1503/cmaj.121756

Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism From 2 to 9 Years of Age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6), 694. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.6.694

Schmidt, L., Kirchner, J., Strunz, S., Broźus, J., Ritter, K., Roepke, S., & Dziobek, I. (2015). Psychosocial Functioning and Life Satisfaction in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder Without Intellectual Impairment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(12), 1259-1268. doi:10.1002/jclp.22225

Turner, M. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive Behaviour in Autism: A Review of Psychological Research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 839-849. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00502

Lewis, M. H., & Bodfish, J. W. (1998). Repetitive behavior disorders in autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 4(2), 80-89. doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-2779(1998)4:2<80::aid-mrdd4>3.0.co;2-0

Mahone, E. M., Bridges, D., Prahme, C., & Singer, H. S. (2004). Repetitive arm and hand movements (complex motor stereotypies) in children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 145(3), 391-395. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.06.014

MacDonald, R., Green, G., Mansfield, R., Geckeler, A., Gardenier, N., Anderson, J., … Sanchez, J. (2007). Stereotypy in young children with autism and typically developing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28(3), 266-277. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2006.01.004

Singer, H. S. (2009). Motor Stereotypies. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 16(2), 77-81. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2009.03.008

Lidstone, J., Uljarević, M., Sullivan, J., Rodgers, J., McConachie, H., Freeston, M., … Leekam, S. (2014). Relations among restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety and sensory features in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(2), 82-92. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2013.10.001

GOLDMAN, S., WANG, C., SALGADO, M. W., GREENE, P. E., KIM, M., & RAPIN, I. (2009). Motor stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 51(1), 30-38. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03178.x

Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659-685. doi:10.1007/bf02172145

Volkmar, F. R., State, M., & Klin, A. (2009). Autism and autism spectrum disorders: diagnostic issues for the coming decade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(1-2), 108-115. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02010.x

Reaven, J. A., Hepburn, S. L., & Ross, R. G. (2008). Use of the ADOS and ADI-R in Children with Psychosis: Importance of Clinical Judgment. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(1), 81-94. doi:10.1177/1359104507086343

Torres, E. B., Brincker, M., Isenhower, R. W., Yanovich, P., Stigler, K. A., Nurnberger, J. I., … José, J. V. (2013). Autism: the micro-movement perspective. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00032

Möricke, E., Buitelaar, J. K., & Rommelse, N. N. J. (2015). Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 164-175. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2562-y

CHAYTOR, N., SCHMITTEREDGECOMBE, M., & BURR, R. (2006). Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(3), 217-227. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.12.002

Brunswik, E. (1955). Representative design and probabilistic theory in a functional psychology. Psychological Review, 62(3), 193-217. doi:10.1037/h0047470

Gillberg, C., & Rasmussen, P. (1994). Brief report: Four case histories and a literature review of williams syndrome and autistic behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(3), 381-393. doi:10.1007/bf02172235

Parsons, S. (2016). Authenticity in Virtual Reality for assessment and intervention in autism: A conceptual review. Educational Research Review, 19, 138-157. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2016.08.001

Francis, K. (2005). Autism interventions: a critical update. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 47(7), 493-499. doi:10.1017/s0012162205000952

Albinali, F., Goodwin, M. S., & Intille, S. S. (2009). Recognizing stereotypical motor movements in the laboratory and classroom. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Ubiquitous computing. doi:10.1145/1620545.1620555

Pyles, D. A. M., Riordan, M. M., & Bailey, J. S. (1997). The stereotypy analysis: An instrument for examining environmental variables associated with differential rates of stereotypic behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18(1), 11-38. doi:10.1016/s0891-4222(96)00034-0

Nosek, B. A., Hawkins, C. B., & Frazier, R. S. (2011). Implicit social cognition: from measures to mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(4), 152-159. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.01.005

Forscher, P. S., Lai, C. K., Axt, J. R., Ebersole, C. R., Herman, M., Devine, P. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2019). A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(3), 522-559. doi:10.1037/pspa0000160

LeDoux, J. E., & Pine, D. S. (2016). Using Neuroscience to Help Understand Fear and Anxiety: A Two-System Framework. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(11), 1083-1093. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16030353

Fenning, R. M., Baker, J. K., Baucom, B. R., Erath, S. A., Howland, M. A., & Moffitt, J. (2017). Electrodermal Variability and Symptom Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(4), 1062-1072. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-3021-0

Nikula, R. (1991). Psychological Correlates of Nonspecific Skin Conductance Responses. Psychophysiology, 28(1), 86-90. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1991.tb03392.x

Alcañiz Raya, M., Chicchi Giglioli, I. A., Marín-Morales, J., Higuera-Trujillo, J. L., Olmos, E., Minissi, M. E., … Abad, L. (2020). Application of Supervised Machine Learning for Behavioral Biomarkers of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based on Electrodermal Activity and Virtual Reality. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.00090

Cunningham, W. A., Raye, C. L., & Johnson, M. K. (2004). Implicit and Explicit Evaluation: fMRI Correlates of Valence, Emotional Intensity, and Control in the Processing of Attitudes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(10), 1717-1729. doi:10.1162/0898929042947919

Kopton, I. M., & Kenning, P. (2014). Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00549

Nickel, P., & Nachreiner, F. (2003). Sensitivity and Diagnosticity of the 0.1-Hz Component of Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Mental Workload. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45(4), 575-590. doi:10.1518/hfes.45.4.575.27094

Di Martino, A., Yan, C.-G., Li, Q., Denio, E., Castellanos, F. X., Alaerts, K., … Milham, M. P. (2013). The autism brain imaging data exchange: towards a large-scale evaluation of the intrinsic brain architecture in autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(6), 659-667. doi:10.1038/mp.2013.78

Van Hecke, A. V., Lebow, J., Bal, E., Lamb, D., Harden, E., Kramer, A., … Porges, S. W. (2009). Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Child Development, 80(4), 1118-1133. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01320.x

Coronato, A., De Pietro, G., & Paragliola, G. (2014). A situation-aware system for the detection of motion disorders of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Expert Systems with Applications, 41(17), 7868-7877. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2014.05.011

Goodwin, M. S., Intille, S. S., Albinali, F., & Velicer, W. F. (2010). Automated Detection of Stereotypical Motor Movements. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 770-782. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1102-z

Rodrigues, J. L., Gonçalves, N., Costa, S., & Soares, F. (2013). Stereotyped movement recognition in children with ASD. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 202, 162-169. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2013.04.019

Crippa, A., Salvatore, C., Perego, P., Forti, S., Nobile, M., Molteni, M., & Castiglioni, I. (2015). Use of Machine Learning to Identify Children with Autism and Their Motor Abnormalities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 2146-2156. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2379-8

Wedyan, M., Al-Jumaily, A., & Crippa, A. (2019). Using machine learning to perform early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder based on simple upper limb movements. International Journal of Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 15(4), 195-206. doi:10.3233/his-190278

Parsons, S., Mitchell, P., & Leonard, A. (2004). The Use and Understanding of Virtual Environments by Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(4), 449-466. doi:10.1023/b:jadd.0000037421.98517.8d

Parsons, T. D., Rizzo, A. A., Rogers, S., & York, P. (2009). Virtual reality in paediatric rehabilitation: A review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(4), 224-238. doi:10.1080/17518420902991719

Bowman, D. A., Gabbard, J. L., & Hix, D. (2002). A Survey of Usability Evaluation in Virtual Environments: Classification and Comparison of Methods. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(4), 404-424. doi:10.1162/105474602760204309

Pastorelli, E., & Herrmann, H. (2013). A Small-scale, Low-budget Semi-immersive Virtual Environment for Scientific Visualization and Research. Procedia Computer Science, 25, 14-22. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2013.11.003

Cobb, S. V. G., Nichols, S., Ramsey, A., & Wilson, J. R. (1999). Virtual Reality-Induced Symptoms and Effects (VRISE). Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8(2), 169-186. doi:10.1162/105474699566152

Wallace, S., Parsons, S., Westbury, A., White, K., White, K., & Bailey, A. (2010). Sense of presence and atypical social judgments in immersive virtual environments. Autism, 14(3), 199-213. doi:10.1177/1362361310363283

Lorenzo, G., Lledó, A., Arráez-Vera, G., & Lorenzo-Lledó, A. (2018). The application of immersive virtual reality for students with ASD: A review between 1990–2017. Education and Information Technologies, 24(1), 127-151. doi:10.1007/s10639-018-9766-7

Bailenson, J. N., Yee, N., Merget, D., & Schroeder, R. (2006). The Effect of Behavioral Realism and Form Realism of Real-Time Avatar Faces on Verbal Disclosure, Nonverbal Disclosure, Emotion Recognition, and Copresence in Dyadic Interaction. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(4), 359-372. doi:10.1162/pres.15.4.359

Cipresso, P., Giglioli, I. A. C., Raya, M. A., & Riva, G. (2018). The Past, Present, and Future of Virtual and Augmented Reality Research: A Network and Cluster Analysis of the Literature. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02086

Cummings, J. J., & Bailenson, J. N. (2015). How Immersive Is Enough? A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Immersive Technology on User Presence. Media Psychology, 19(2), 272-309. doi:10.1080/15213269.2015.1015740

Skalski, P., & Tamborini, R. (2007). The Role of Social Presence in Interactive Agent-Based Persuasion. Media Psychology, 10(3), 385-413. doi:10.1080/15213260701533102

Slater, M. (2009). Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1535), 3549-3557. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0138

Baños, R. M., Botella, C., Garcia-Palacios, A., Villa, H., Perpiña, C., & Alcañiz, M. (2000). Presence and Reality Judgment in Virtual Environments: A Unitary Construct? CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3(3), 327-335. doi:10.1089/10949310050078760

Bente, G., Rüggenberg, S., Krämer, N. C., & Eschenburg, F. (2008). Avatar-Mediated Networking: Increasing Social Presence and Interpersonal Trust in Net-Based Collaborations. Human Communication Research, 34(2), 287-318. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2008.00322.x

Heeter, C. (1992). Being There: The Subjective Experience of Presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(2), 262-271. doi:10.1162/pres.1992.1.2.262

Sanchez-Vives, M. V., & Slater, M. (2005). From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(4), 332-339. doi:10.1038/nrn1651

Mohr, D. C., Burns, M. N., Schueller, S. M., Clarke, G., & Klinkman, M. (2013). Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35(4), 332-338. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.03.008

Neguț, A., Matu, S.-A., Sava, F. A., & David, D. (2016). Virtual reality measures in neuropsychological assessment: a meta-analytic review. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 30(2), 165-184. doi:10.1080/13854046.2016.1144793

Riva, G. (2005). Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(3), 220-230. doi:10.1089/cpb.2005.8.220

Valmaggia, L. R., Latif, L., Kempton, M. J., & Rus-Calafell, M. (2016). Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: An systematic review of recent evidence. Psychiatry Research, 236, 189-195. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.01.015

Mesa-Gresa, P., Gil-Gómez, H., Lozano-Quilis, J.-A., & Gil-Gómez, J.-A. (2018). Effectiveness of Virtual Reality for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review. Sensors, 18(8), 2486. doi:10.3390/s18082486

Cheng, Y., & Ye, J. (2010). Exploring the social competence of students with autism spectrum conditions in a collaborative virtual learning environment – The pilot study. Computers & Education, 54(4), 1068-1077. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.10.011

Jarrold, W., Mundy, P., Gwaltney, M., Bailenson, J., Hatt, N., McIntyre, N., … Swain, L. (2013). Social Attention in a Virtual Public Speaking Task in Higher Functioning Children With Autism. Autism Research, 6(5), 393-410. doi:10.1002/aur.1302

Forgeot d’Arc, B., Ramus, F., Lefebvre, A., Brottier, D., Zalla, T., Moukawane, S., … Delorme, R. (2014). Atypical Social Judgment and Sensitivity to Perceptual Cues in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(5), 1574-1581. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2208-5

Maskey, M., Lowry, J., Rodgers, J., McConachie, H., & Parr, J. R. (2014). Reducing Specific Phobia/Fear in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) through a Virtual Reality Environment Intervention. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e100374. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100374

Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1522), 1377-1383. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0337

Tomchek, S. D., Huebner, R. A., & Dunn, W. (2014). Patterns of sensory processing in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(9), 1214-1224. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.006

Boyd, B. A., Baranek, G. T., Sideris, J., Poe, M. D., Watson, L. R., Patten, E., & Miller, H. (2010). Sensory features and repetitive behaviors in children with autism and developmental delays. Autism Research, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1002/aur.124

Gabriels, R. L., Agnew, J. A., Miller, L. J., Gralla, J., Pan, Z., Goldson, E., … Hooks, E. (2008). Is there a relationship between restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and interests and abnormal sensory response in children with autism spectrum disorders? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(4), 660-670. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2008.02.002

Cao, Z., Hidalgo, G., Simon, T., Wei, S.-E., & Sheikh, Y. (2021). OpenPose: Realtime Multi-Person 2D Pose Estimation Using Part Affinity Fields. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 43(1), 172-186. doi:10.1109/tpami.2019.2929257

Schölkopf, B., Smola, A. J., Williamson, R. C., & Bartlett, P. L. (2000). New Support Vector Algorithms. Neural Computation, 12(5), 1207-1245. doi:10.1162/089976600300015565

Yan, K., & Zhang, D. (2015). Feature selection and analysis on correlated gas sensor data with recursive feature elimination. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 212, 353-363. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2015.02.025

Chang, C.-C., & Lin, C.-J. (2011). LIBSVM. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology, 2(3), 1-27. doi:10.1145/1961189.1961199

O’Neill, M., & Jones, R. S. P. (1997). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(3), 283-293. doi:10.1023/a:1025850431170

Foss-Feig, J. H., Kwakye, L. D., Cascio, C. J., Burnette, C. P., Kadivar, H., Stone, W. L., & Wallace, M. T. (2010). An extended multisensory temporal binding window in autism spectrum disorders. Experimental Brain Research, 203(2), 381-389. doi:10.1007/s00221-010-2240-4

Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A. J., Kilman, B. A., & Galambos, R. (1985). Event-related brain potential correlates of the processing of novel visual and auditory information in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(1), 55-76. doi:10.1007/bf01837899

Russo, N., Foxe, J. J., Brandwein, A. B., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., & Molholm, S. (2010). Multisensory processing in children with autism: high-density electrical mapping of auditory-somatosensory integration. Autism Research, 3(5), 253-267. doi:10.1002/aur.152

Ament, K., Mejia, A., Buhlman, R., Erklin, S., Caffo, B., Mostofsky, S., & Wodka, E. (2014). Evidence for Specificity of Motor Impairments in Catching and Balance in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(3), 742-751. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2229-0






This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record